Wednesday, October 22, 2014

Man of the century - 16th

One of the primary reasons I started this blog was to write about people who deserve to be better known or have been forgotten. I haven't gotten back to that in a while - so, this is about a forgotten theologian who has a good deal to do with the development of religious toleration in the west.

Who would you name man of the 16th century?  I realize you don't really care. Humor me.

I'm going to rule out Toyotomi Hideyoshi or the Shogun from Japan (there were three who united Japan that century in a progression) for many reasons. That leaves us, outside of western Europe, with Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire, who, though he looked funny in that big hat he has on in  paintings, conquered huge swaths of land, including in Europe, and unified much of the Muslim world in such a manner that it would last for centuries. Mere conquerors are rarely going to compete for my man of the century. But, Suleiman was much more than that and his reign has been called a "golden age" with success in architecture, poetry (including his own), agriculture and law. What he created was by far a greater empire than any created in Europe, rivaling or surpassing Spain, which still controlled much of the new world. But still, not enough to win here.

DaVinci has to be up there. I don't have to list his accomplishments as they are so well known. Michaelangelo, the better artist of the two in my view - maybe the greatest artist in history, was though not as much a "renaissance man" as Leonardo. I suppose you could definitely make an argument for Copernicus. I wouldn't. Definitely not Magellan (some other sailor would have done what Magellan did soon after).

Some would say Martin Luther, whose 95 theses and refusal to knuckle under to the Catholic Church changed the West forever. Fewer would choose his even more prickly French counterpart, John Calvin (Jehan Cauvin), who followed Luther and was probably the greater force outside his own land. But for every good reason, some of which will be made obvious here, he will not get the nod either.

No, I would go with a contemporary of Luther's and Calvin's, one who had to live the latter part of his life in poverty and secrecy, mostly because of Calvin. Even today, outside of a small group of theologians and historians, his name is barely ever mentioned; his accomplishments almost never recognized. And though you can find a number of articles on the web about him, it is hard to find published works about him or written by him.

His name was Sebastian Castellio (some would write Castellion or many other variations). I wrote about him briefly here before once, but felt I had more to say about him. Unless you are  unusually interested in the 16th century, it is very unlikely you've heard of him before either. His work placed him both outside the protection of the Catholic and Protestant churches, who together controlled almost all territory in Europe. He directly challenged Calvin, who crushed him, as he did most everyone who disagreed with him, even over petty matters.

Despite that, Castellio, a prophet of religious toleration long before Roger Williams or John Locke or Baruch Spinoza, won the longer war, even if it was well after his death and he never knew.  Because Christianity, inseparable from the history of Europe up to the 1700s, became a far more tolerant religion after Castellio - and that include Calvinists, who are now, of course, no more deadly on account of religion than the rest. More, I think I can show you how there is more of a link between this scholarly theologian and your own freedom of conscience than you might have guessed. That's right, some of the freedom we accept as natural or normal today is owed to this pious Frenchman whom almost no one ever heard about. It's not that he ever had any power or even a congregation - far from it - but his influence trickled down to other thinkers and eventually, the powerful acceded to it and we undoubtedly benefit from it.  

But before we get to Castellio and how he influenced our own lives, in order to understand his place, we have to briefly talk about the aforementioned Martin Luther, John Calvin and also a martyr to freedom of conscience, Michael Servetus, in order to make sense of what Castellio wrote and did.

A caveat. One thing you learn reading history, no one was really first in just about anything. Or, as it was put in Ecclesiastes, there is nothing new under the sun. Virtually everyone we think started something had predecessors, one way or another. Sometimes revolutionary figures know it themselves and pattern themselves after their intellectual forefathers and sometimes they don't. Sometimes they learn about them only later.

Such was the case with Luther, who was certainly an original thinker, but was hardly the first to come up with his revolutionary concepts. And though 
many came before him, like Wycliff (England) and Hus (Bohemia) and numerous "heresies," he was generally not aware of them when he began his revolutionary journey. Though his movement would have happened without them, it might have been delayed a long while without Luther. You could argue that the Catholic humanist Erasmus, not really a revolutionary himself, but certainly an innovator, was a predecessor to Luther in some ways as well (and though he remained a Catholic, was blamed by many of his fellows for Protestantism).  I'm sure Luther would argue the point voraciously as they debated the issue of free will vigorously in print. But, many reform movements either sputtered out or were driven out, whereas upon Luther's refusal to knuckle under from Papal pressure, Protestantism began to take off and eventually even had an impact on the Catholic Church (the counter-Reformation). But, I believe ultimately, Castellio had a bigger impact on both.

There are many books about Luther, who was a dynamic and really entertaining figure. You can go to Wikipedia and read about him. For my purposes, this is what was important about him -

- He successfully challenged the Catholic Church on theological grounds, though he was mainly able to do so safely because he had the support of local secular authorities, one most so, who were able to physically protect him. Even though, like many who seek freedom, they sought it for themselves and their own group, it was still a monumental achievement.

- He helped establish that men were free to interpret the Bible themselves (sort of) and the priority of the text over the opinions of the leaders of the church.

- He helped establish the idea of a separation between church and state (sort of).

We can stop there. Like I said, there is much more to him and many books have been written on it. John Calvin came after Luther. He established another Protestant church known as the Reformed church or faith, usually called Calvinism today, which still exists and has many millions of worldwide followers. Though Calvin too had his predecessors, notably Zwingli, the Reformed church was undoubtedly influenced by Luther and his sidekick, Melanchthon. Calvin himself was a highly competent and persuasive man, but his dark side was as great as a Sith Lord. Whereas Luther saw the state and church having separate spheres, Calvin established in Geneva the first modern theocracy, albeit there were large elements of democracy in it. Protestantism naturally leads to thoughts of freedom of conscience, but, both Lutheranism and Calvinism quickly established their own dogmas and became as rigid and deadly as the Catholic Church that persecuted them at the time. They differed from one another in debating points that would not be very important to most Americans, and though some made an effort to come to agreement - particularly Calvin and Melanchthon - their successors would bitterly quarrel for a long time. Now, of course, they are all peaceful Castellionists, though, none would use that word.

Both the Catholic Church and the protestant churches persecuted heretics. Both Luther (eventually) and Calvin thought that death was an appropriate punishment for them as did many others.

Which brings us to Michael Servetus. Servetus was a medical doctor with a deep interest in theology. He wrote a book arguing against the trinity - that is, the father, the son and the holy ghost being one (although, many of us would have difficulty discerning the differences today), which was unacceptable to Calvin. Nevertheless, Servetus, was a bit of a character himself, brilliant (more so as a doctor) and though gentle by nature, to some degree obnoxious, as well as an opinionated fellow. He corresponded with and attempted to engage Calvin in an intellectual debate on the trinity. He managed to gain Calvin's enmity and Calvin conspired to have him arrested. Servetus escaped and, for reasons that are hard to understand except that he might have had a death wish, traveled incognito to Geneva and actually went to Calvin's church. He was recognized and arrested. Much could be said about his trial and defenses, but, he was eventually convicted and put to death by fire. Though Calvin argued that he be beheaded instead, as Servetus requested, it is hard to defend Calvin, who undoubtedly was the primary force behind Servetus' horrid death for the crime of stating his opinion over theological fine points.

Which brings us to Castellio. Castellio was, like Calvin, a Frenchman who discovered both the humanities and the church. He mastered Greek, Latin and Hebrew and later German. He was actually a friend of Calvin, whom he met in Strasbourg the year before Calvin returned to Geneva, and briefly stayed at a hostel run by Calvin's family for a while. Upon establishing himself in Geneva, Calvin soon called for his friend and made him rector of the College of Geneva. While there, Castellio wrote a book of dialogues meant to help children learn language and the Bible. The book, retelling bible stories as dialogues in French and Latin, was actually his greatest success from a publishing standpoint, being reprinted many times. In it was contained a germ of his thought - "The friend of the truth obeys not the multitude, but the truth." As he would soon learn, it was one thing to opine it, another to practice it in Calvin's Geneva.

For friendship with Calvin was not possible for someone of independent scholarly curiosity and though Castellio showed remarkable courage tending the sick during the plague (Calvin and other ordained ministers did not) his disagreement with Calvin over what seems to us the rather trivial opinions - the interpretation of Solomon's Song of Songs (Castellio's interpretation is much more standard today) and of Christ's descent into hell - was too much for Calvin to bear and he squashed his friend's expected ordination as a minister. Castellio also seemed to recognize Calvin's need to rule, and this no doubt hurt Calvin, who likely thought Castellio owed him everything. And, certainly, professionally, he owed him a lot. Jealousy also likely played a role. Voltaire later wrote - "We can measure the virulence of this tyranny by the persecution to which Castellio was exposed at Calvin's instance—although Castellio was a far greater scholar than Calvin, whose jealousy drove him out of Geneva."

This seems too true. Having finished his French translation of the Bible, Castellio called upon Calvin to approve it, as such was necessary in Geneva. Calvin wrote to a friend - "Just listen to Sebastian's preposterous scheme, which makes me smile, and at the same time angers me. Three days ago he called on me, to ask permission for the publication of his translation of the New Testament." What Castellio may either not have realized or had the cheek to think unimportant, was that Calvin had had a hand in a prior French translation. But, in fairness to Calvin, he did not reject his work out of hand, but insisted on being the first to read and make corrections he thought appropriate. Of course, that would have made it as much Calvin's work as Castellio. Castellio offered to read it to him and debate it, but Calvin would have nothing of it. ""I told him that even if he promised me a hundred crowns I should never be prepared to pledge myself to discussions at a particular moment, and then, perhaps, to wrangle for two hours over a single word. Thereupon he departed much mortified."

It could not have worked, of course, for whereas Calvin had certainty in his beliefs, as related by him to the world in his famous Institutes, Castellio was full of doubt. He acknowledged that he did not understand all of the Bible (no one could, of course) and warned the reader that it was his interpretation with which they might differ. Very protestant of him, actually, in the purest sense.  One has to be reminded of Bertrand Russell's statement - "The problem with the world is that fools and fanatics are always so certain of themselves, and wiser people so full of doubt."

For the world, Calvin's treatment of Castellio was perhaps fortuitous, as Castellio, who clearly did not belong in dogmatic Geneva, went to Basel (or Basle), Switzerland, not all that far away but with a somewhat more lenient attitude, being a place where even the more controversial and independent theologian, Sebastian Franck, had been able to live in peace for a while and where Calvin himself had published his first edition of the Institutes there a few years before his triumphant return to Geneva. There Castellio lived a life in poverty with his family, often engaging in menial labor to survive, while finishing his translations. Achievement aside, Castellio's Latin translation was also remarkable for his dedication to the young king of England, Edward VI. Of the few commentaries I find on this dedication, most seem unaware that Little Eddie's tutor, John Cheke, and Castellio were mutual admirers and other Englishmen had even urged that Castellio be invited to England to fill an empty chair at Cambridge. The dedication was very un-Calvinist - that is, advocating freedom of conscience and recognizing human free will (something which, by the way, neither Luther nor Calvin believed in - not to mention some modern philosophers and there is a legitimate philosophical strain - devoid of theology - which also argues so).

Though Calvin had written Castellio a letter of recommendation when he left, stating that other than Castellio's two wrong opinions, Castellio would have been ordained, when Castellio left Geneva for Basel, his attitude soon turned to one more typical of him - venomous hatred.

But, it was after Servetus was burned that Castellio truly earned Calvin's enmity. Calvin had written a defense of the execution and Castellio responded with a book on heretics which, though as plain as its basic points could be to us, was completely revolutionary for a book in print at the time, putting forth a view of Christianity that was the opposite of which Calvin was promulgating throughout Europe.

It is very hard to find anything written by Castellio today in English. I have read his de haeriticis et sint persequendi, with which he challenged Calvin, which has been translated into English and edited by my favorite writer on religious liberty, Ronald Bainton, and which I was lucky to find at a university library. I can't say it is riveting reading today, or that you should go out and buy it (even if the cost wasn't exorbitant) because the principles of tolerance he extolled are so well known today that it makes for dull reading. But, in its day, it was incendiary and provocative. After the preface, it is really a collection from religious figures who Castellio claimed supported his view. Castellio was well aware of his forbearers.  His collection of writings included both Luther and Calvin, which inclusion naturally points out that they changed once they became powerful themselves. Castellio quotes Calvin - "It is unchristian to use arms against those who have been expelled from the Church, and to deny them rights common to all mankind."  This was hardly true any longer - that is, at the time Castellio wrote it Calvin had clearly changed his mind, but it was written by Calvin back when he himself was in danger from the Catholic Church. Castellio cherry picked his chosen statements and made no effort to take a balanced approach. Thus it was quite easy for one of Calvin's followers, Theodore Beza, to write a book refuting him. Though Castellio wrote a response to Beza, Contra Libellum Calvini, it was not published in his lifetime. Though you can even find the Latin original online, I have been unable to find it in English at all. 

Castellio did not write his de haeriticis in his own name either, as that would have been even more dangerous, but everyone who knew him well therefore also knew well who wrote it. Including, of course, Calvin. The following is a letter from Calvin to a friend, who also supported Castellio, and is quite typical of Calvin, if seemingly to us, a little schizophrenic:

"Although we seek the same goal we are different more than I should like in temperament and      character. I know what you think, and what you sometimes say, about me. I am not so fond of       myself as not to dislike some of the shortcomings which you reprove. . . . But others I would not alter. We differ not only in temperament, but I deliberately pursue a different course. Mildness suits you and to it I am also not averse. If I seem to you too severe, believe me I have adopted the role only because I must. You do not consider how the Church is endangered by your latitude, which gives unrestricted license to evil doers, which confuses virtue and vice and makes no distinction between black and white. For example, take Castellio, whom you would like to see appointed at Lausanne, were it not for your fear that there might be disturbance because of the "squabbles" which I had with him. This does not so much hurt me as it violates the sacred name of God and vilifies all truth and religion. This good man would destroy the fundamentals of our salvation and is not ashamed to break into detestable blasphemies. He says that "the God of Calvin is a liar, a hypocrite, two-faced, the author of all evil, the enemy of justice, and worse than the devil." Have I not a right to complain that you treat me unkindly? I know that you are far from approving of the stinking detestable dung of this obscene dog. I should prefer that the earth swallow me up a hundred times than that I should not listen to what the Spirit of God dictates and prescribes for me by the mouth of the prophet in the words: "The reproaches of them that reproached Thee have fallen upon me"(Ps. 69:9). And now when I defend the faith which I cannot desert without treachery and perfidy, do you say that I "squabble"? Would that this rash word, of which I am ashamed as unworthy of a Christian, had never escaped you. If we have a spark of piety, such an indignity as that of Castellio should enflame us to the highest indignation. As for me I would rather rave than not be angry. You had better consider how you will answer before the Supreme Judge.  . . .

I see what a bitter letter I have written, and I almost tore it into a hundred pieces, but it is not my way to conceal what presses on my heart, nor would you wish it. Otherwise I could not have   written at all. I cannot lie and flatter. I have been made more irritable by a load of work, and I am afraid I have been inconsiderate enough to trouble you when you are nearly crushed with the weariness of cares and labors."

See what fun these guys were. Of course, when you consider how much more peaceful and rational and Christ-like the voice of Castellio was it becomes harder to understand why Calvin is still a household name, with hundreds of millions of followers, at least in name, and Castellio but a buried treasure. These are samplings of Castellio:

"[Y]ou should allow everyone who believes in Christ to do so in his own way." 

"It is preposterous to assert that those who are forced to profess a belief really believe what they profess."

"[Opinions are] almost as numerous as men, nevertheless there is hadly any sect which does not condemn all others and desire to reign alone."

"When I reflect on what a heretic really is, I can find no other criterion than that we are all heretics in the eyes of those who do not share our views."

"Let not the Jews or Turks condemn the Christians, nor let the Christians condemn the Jews or Turks, but rather teach and win them by true religion and justice. "

 [Advice to France laid waste -1562]  [Sedition arose] "from the attempt to force and kill heretics rather than from leaving them alone, because tyranny engenders sedition."  

"Either the victim resists, and you murder his body, or he yields and speaks against his conscience, and you murder his soul."

Castellio also wrote a book on doubt - what we would call skepticism. Although he hardly invented it, again, for his time and place it was a remarkable thing to have written. The idea that man must be uncertain is commonplace to those thoroughly familiar with science, but, at the time, most religious figures and even philosophers were filled with certainty. For his time and place, particularly in the religious world, it was a very necessary and dangerous thing to be said and I believe he was at least one important flowering of the idea which led to more modern philosophers. To write a book on it was almost inviting the flames.

However, despite being modern compared to Calvin or Luther, and almost everyone else at the time, in his views on dissent to accepted religious views, Castellio was not from the future either, and it has to be understood that his views were a radical change, but not contemporary modern 21st century thought either. He claimed, for example, to hate heretics himself and thought some punishment was appropriate. Nor did he approve of atheists at all. It was not that any of these were beliefs acceptable to him, but he felt, as we do now, that they should be persuaded by reason, not by fire or sword. "To kill a man," he wrote, "is not to protect a doctrine, but it is to kill a man." I've read slightly different versions ("burn a man," etc.) but, have not read the Latin.  In any event, the sentiment sounds pretty obvious to us - but . . . .

Castellio argued that if men could argue these points over hundreds of years without any resolution, how could they legitimately be resolved by force? But what probably infuriated Calvin and others most, was that Castellio also argued that Christ would never approve of such behavior. And, so it is believed today. Nevertheless, if they did not have reason, Calvin and Luther had much of history on their side.

But, all this is history. I said at the beginning I would link it to our own beloved freedoms and I will soon. For, no doubt, Castellio is an almost completely forgotten man today. There have been biographies, but I can find no biography on him in English that I could and would buy. Bainton wrote one which is out of print. The only one I could find online, by Guggisberg and Gordon, is available on Amazon for $116.10.  $116.10!!! My dedication to learning does know some bounds. Whatever the limit is, $116.10 for a book far surpasses it. Not surprisingly, there are no reviews of their bio on Amazon and I would love to know if any person actually bought the book.

But, leave bios aside. In my local library, I checked the two reference encyclopedias they have dedicated to religion, one which is multi-volumed and contains just about anything and anyone you can imagine. Both encyclopedias refer to many very minor figures and topics in Christian history, but neither - Castellio.  Yet, I knew this was going to be the case when I picked them up and would have been surprised if the opposite was true. Today I went to a bookstore that had a large and interesting philosophy section. I found several books right away that dealt with the reformation - even Servetus's burning and yet - each one completely ignored the major protest from Castellio. And I just received a volume on skepticism, which mentions Calvin and Spinoza and even Noam Chomsky, for crying out loud. But, no Castellio.

I first came across Castellio in Will Durant's volume on the Reformation in his great eleven volume history and then in Bainton's books on Luther and others. Of course, Bainton's own edition of de haereticis, and other books by him considers Castellio extensively. But, no one is buying them these days either (well, obviously I am, and I'm sure some others must, but I would expect the number is in the low digits). The same is true of the books by the noted German author, Stefan Zweig, who wrote Castellio against Calvin, which is fortunately available online.

Ironically, because of the availability of scholarly articles on the web and e-publishing of books that virtually no one reads or buys anymore, it is much easier to find material about him there. You can even find a decent Wikipedia article about him (like most of their articles - taken from many other sources). You might say this is just due to the technological changes towards digital these days, but, it's not. You can easily find paper books on Calvin or Luther or many other religious figures. It is that Castellio is so rarely thought about nowadays that you cannot find relatively inexpensive paper books about him in print and he is ignored by most scholars.

But, though not well known today, in his own century Castellio was well known and debated - if not hated - by many others. He was not the only person who believed in religious tolerance, but was, of course, greatly outnumbered by those of a more contentious and even violent temperament. Many great thinkers knew of and wrote about him - Montaigne, slightly following Castellio in time, did and so did Voltaire in the 18th century.

But, the most important Castellio reader we have for our purposes is John Locke, who for many stands as an immediate and perhaps the most important writer who inspired our founders, our revolution and system of government, though he was long dead before it took place.  Probably most of the important literate founders had some Locke under their belt. Certainly Jefferson and Madison, who are most closely associated with our freedom of conscience, did.*

*Generally, I have little use for Jefferson. I do not think much of his character and believe he was a bad governor (Va.), president and vice president - possibly an okay secretary of state save his proxy war through newspapers with Hamilton - though I haven't focused on him in that role much and can't say for certain yet. But, I do believe he was genuine in his belief in religious toleration, particularly as he himself was either an atheist or at most a deist. It does not excuse his other behavior, but I can be thankful for that aspect of him at least.

Locke was also born and raised in a very intolerant time and place - 17th century England, where Catholicism and Protestantism were also at war. The link between Locke and Castellio is undoubted as we know that he had some of Castellio's work in Dutch (Locke spent years in Holland while unwelcome in England). But, we have more. In Locke's correspondence we find him discussing the possibility of publishing Castellio's complete works in English. Keep in mind, Castellio was dead at that point for 130 years, and publication was a major financial undertaking and also sometimes a dangerous one.

And, we can take it even further. It is interesting to note that there were only three authors up to Locke's death who wrote books on both the subjects of knowledge (or epistemology) and religious toleration. Two, as Bainton noted, were Castellio followed by Locke, though almost a century and a half later. The third, surprisingly forgotten by Bainton, was Spinoza, but his epistemology does not closely resemble Castellio's and Locke's does fairly well. Indeed, one of the major aspects of Locke's theology was that religion could be understood through reason - but it did not need to be - uncertainty about religious matters, outside of a few central areas (which which Castellio would agree) was necessary.   

Locke's famed letter on religious toleration was published by the friend he addressed it to apparently without Locke's knowledge.  But for a few points, the letter could have probably been written by Castellio himself, including the lesser tolerance for atheists.

You might find Locke's ownership of some works by Castellio and a discussion about publishing them in English slim reeds by which to give him any indirect credit of inspiration for our own laws and customs. I do not have trouble with it, particularly when coupled with the similarity of their epistemology and theology. Sometimes things like this are all we have to go on and entire books have been written on far  more slender threads than this. In fact, it is accepted by I think everyone that Locke influenced the founders, yet I don't think there is any more direct proof of it than there is that Castellio influenced Locke.  More, there were no Amazon.coms or Barnes & Noble around from which to buy books. Ownership of books was difficult to arrange and it usually meant something significant when someone owned a copy of someone else's works. In fact, for a long time, Locke even had trouble getting hold of his own treatise manuscript, which he had left back in England.

But, in any event, knowing that Locke read and admired Castellio enough to want to have all his works published in English, we can proceed across the ocean. One of the founding documents on religious liberty in America is Jefferson's A Bill for Establishing Religious Liberty in Virginia. Not only do we know that Jefferson owned and read Locke, but the bill itself is somewhat of an interpretation of Locke's letter. In fact, it has been known for over a century that in Jefferson's own writings are pages of notes on the letter. There's some debate on what Jefferson used them for, but this is history, not physics, and there will always be some debate. However, that there is a link established and some influence on his landmark bill is without doubt.

Also, it is known that Locke read and was influenced by a writer known as Acontius, a former Catholic convert to Protestantism who almost certainly personally knew and was influenced by Castellio in Basel, through which Acontius passed on his way to live in England. At least, every scholar I have read takes it for granted that the connection between the two of them is there. I cannot go further than they do. Acontius wrote Darkness Discovered or the Stratagems of Satan, decrying religious dogma.

But, if we allow only slight speculation, it seems apparent that Castellio was an inspiration among many of the slightly later religious figures of the 16th century, when these ideas were first germinating, to argue for toleration and those of the following century. One the other strands of religious freedom comes through Benedictus (or Baruch) Spinoza. I cannot show that he read Castellio or not. But, given that Locke had Castellio's books in Dutch while in Holland, it seems hard to believe that Spinoza, who always lived there, did not have access to them as well, given that religious toleration and epistemology were major concerns for him.

Other writers and leaders of religious toleration I believe were inspired by Castellio include Bayles, Socinus, Arminius, Coonhert and Coolhaes among many others, though those names are not going to be familiar to anyone not interested in this sort of thing.  Admittedly, I do not have the time, inclination, language skills or research tools to take this further and there is just not enough written on these gentleman, at least in English, to easily go further for the purposes of a blog post. As I've learned, at some point you have to determine to press "post," or you never will.

Before I end I'll address some argument I might expect to my belief that Castellio gets some large degree of credit for American freedom of religion. You can always point to Castellio's less than completely modern views - particularly his dislike of atheists and those he considered heretics, but, the same "faults" are true of virtually all historical figures, including Locke and Jefferson and Madison and Lincoln, etc. Future generations will look back on people we think heroes today and say - yes, but he/she also ate meat or didn't eat meat or was pro-choice/life, etc. - whatever might someday be seen as a failure. In fact, in Europe, it was virtually impossible to find anyone in 16th century Europe who had religious toleration the way we do.  

You could also point to the many contributions others have made to freedom of religion and ask what is so special about Castellio, but, I would argue this does not water down his contribution at all, but probably increases it, as most all of them followed him in time and none published a book on it before him.

And certainly many other writers other than Locke (and indirectly Castellio) influenced Jefferson directly in his religious views. We can be sure Sozzini or Socinus, Roger Williams, Joseph Priestly, Viscount Bolingbroke and even Tom Paine did. But, they got and get recognition. Castellio does not (not surprisingly, given his lack of present fame and the fact that Jefferson did not mention him either - I did a search in his writings for the name) and perhaps did not know of him directly.

While everything is debatable, it seems clear enough to me that Castellio's contribution to religious freedom, so rarely mentioned outside of philosophical or religious circles (as opposed to Locke) is far less than it should be.  You might argue that an actual martyr who was burned at the stake - like Servetus - would be a better example. Though not murdered, Castellio was essentially hounded to death at a relatively young age - 48. For Calvin and co. had long sought his prosecution in Basel. He was censored and finally brought to trial in 1563, during which time he died. Probably lucky for him.

I don't believe in heaven, but people like Castellio make me wish there was one.

1 comment:

  1. Erasmus, hands down, you loser. Without Erasmus there is no Luther, no bible in the hands of the common man, no reformation in Northern Europe or England. By the by, though they are both hateful lttle buggers Henry VIII and the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, wouldn't be bad choices either. Not sure, based on his influence on future folk, how Thomas More stays out of the conversation either. Your aversion to well known historical figures hurts your call here. Not that Castellio isn't interesting or important. He just ain't THE MAN.


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I started this blog in September, 2006. Mostly, it is where I can talk about things that interest me, which I otherwise don't get to do all that much, about some remarkable people who should not be forgotten, philosophy and theories (like Don Foster's on who wrote A Visit From St. Nicholas and my own on whether Santa is mostly derived from a Norse god) and analysis of issues that concern me. Often it is about books. I try to quote accurately and to say when I am paraphrasing (more and more). Sometimes I blow the first name of even very famous people, often entertainers. I'm much better at history, but once in a while I see I have written something I later learned was not true. Sometimes I fix them, sometimes not. My worst mistake was writing that Beethoven went blind, when he actually went deaf. Feel free to point out an error. I either leave in the mistake, or, if I clean it up, the comment pointing it out. From time to time I do clean up grammar in old posts as, over time I have become more conventional in my grammar, and I very often write these when I am falling asleep and just make dumb mistakes. It be nice to have an editor, but . . . .